Adult Psychoanalytic Training

The PINE Psychoanalytic Institute is a division of the PINE Psychoanalytic Center. The philosophy of PINE remains true to the original vision, as expressed in 1973 by one of PINE's founders, Dr. Robert Gardner:

"We envision an adventure of ideas. PINE will bring together a few candidates and a few teachers in the professional closeness and lively atmosphere of a workshop. Candidates and teachers will explore critically the basic observations, methods and theories of psychoanalysis. We shall share candidly differences already held and differences that will arise in sustained study and discussion. In short, PINE will be devoted to shared curiosity and search...

The curriculum of PINE will be flexible. It will be attuned to the needs of individual candidates and teachers. We shall strive for a good mixture of organized seminars and seminars that follow more spontaneously the immediate interests of the participants. Seminars will be augmented by tutorials and by special projects. The developmental point of view and developmental data will receive particular stress in each aspect of the program. We shall try to develop a program of appeal and value to candidates of different backgrounds, including non-medical and medical. Our aim will be for a program whose breadth and depth will challenge the diversity of skills and interests of our candidates and to use that diversity to the advantage of the candidates and teachers... The full faculty will explore scientific and teaching challenges and will advance a program of faculty study groups. We shall develop a faculty with a ferment of academic spirit and the activities reflective of that spirit."

(See our page about applying for training where you can also download an application form.)


Psychoanalytic training is based on the student’s participation in three complementary learning experiences: (1) the curriculum -- participation in formal classes on psychoanalytic theory and technique; (2) the personal analysis-- referred to as a training analysis; and (3) supervised psychoanalytic treatment with at least three patients under close supervision -- referred to as control cases.

The didactic curriculum at PINE is flexible, allowing us to integrate the creative ideas of both faculty and candidates in creating new and interesting seminars. The specific content of the seminar program varies from year to year. Candidates are encouraged to give seminar suggestions to the Curriculum Committee.

Generally, fall and spring seminars are designed to meet the broad requirements.  All candidates participate in clinical seminars every year from the first year of training. These include clinical case conferences in which everyone presents and continuous case conferences in which one or two candidates present detailed process material for exploration of issues related to theory and technique. Candidates are all required to take a seminar on psychoanalytic ethics.  The winter semester includes selectives for all candidates that are designed to round out the curriculum and to explore topics of individual interest in greater depth.

A recent innovation has been the creation of “advanced seminars” for faculty and candidates beyond the third year. These seminars are designed to meet the needs and interests of both the faculty and candidates, to provide a shared educational opportunity, and to facilitate the transition from candidate to graduate. Candidates are also free to develop individual or small group tutorials with interested PINE faculty. Writing has become a component of many of the seminars, and candidates are mentored in clinical writing and presentations.

A minimum of 450 total hours of seminar participation is required for graduation (i.e., the minimum requirement for institutes of the American Psychoanalytic Association). The curriculum is designed to allow the candidate to meet all didactic requirements over a period of five years. Most candidates require 6-8 years to complete training.

Candidates participate each year from the beginning of training in clinical seminars in which candidates present their own analytic work. Candidates also have at least one seminar each year that offers a deep exploration of a theoretical question and one seminar each year addressing an aspect of psychoanalytic technique.  Candidates who complete their core requirements are asked to take at least one seminar per year up to Year VIII.

A candidate will typically complete the following seminars during their training:

  • The concept of analyzability and facilitating the transition from psychotherapy to psychoanalysis; 
  • Ethics in psychoanalysis; 
  • Two seminars on Freud’s written cases and the development Freud’s theories;
  • At least four seminars on such core theories as unconscious process, transference, countertransference, resistance, conflict, and defenses;
  • Two seminars on the theory and technique of working with dreams;
  • Seminars on theories of character structure and working with different character issues;
  • A series of five seminars on development including a clinical seminar of analytic work with children and adolescents and a clinical case conference on applying developmental concepts in adult analysis;
  • At least two additional clinical case conferences where candidates each present ongoing analytic material; At least two Continuous Case Conferences in which a single case or two cases are explored by the participants in depth;
  • At least five ‘selectives.’

Advanced candidates who have completed the core requirements are encouraged to participate in seminars or other forms of study, research or writing as developed in collaboration with their advisors.

The personal training analysis is a foundation of psychoanalytic training. PINE has always been a "non-reporting institute," which means that the content and progress of the analysis is strictly confidential and not considered in decisions about the candidate's education or training progression. The objectives of a training analysis are similar to those of a therapeutic analysis. In addition, the analysis will include analyzing those issues relevant to the practice and conduct of psychoanalysis. The duration of the analysis is determined by the progress of the analysis. 

The training analysis, ordinarily conducted by a PINE training analyst of the candidate’s choosing, may also be conducted by any training analyst from Boston Psychoanalytic Society and Institute (BPSI).  Thus, candidates have a very large pool of analysts from which to choose.  In addition, when a candidate who is accepted for training has been in treatment with an analyst who is not a PINE or BPSI training analyst, but is a member in good standing of the American Psychoanalytic Association and has met other criteria, the candidate may apply to continue this analysis as the personal training analysis.

The candidate must be actively engaged in his/her training analysis prior to beginning a psychoanalytic case, and the training analysis must continue during a substantial portion of the candidate’s supervised psychoanalytic work. The candidate and his/her analyst arrange scheduling (4-5 hours per week) and fees. 

Another foundation of a psychoanalytic education is supervision. Through detailed examination of a single analytic case, one learns the different perspectives on what is central to the analytic encounter and the curative process. Beginning analytic work relatively early in the educational process helps to encourage a more thorough integration of practice with theory, to provide for longer and more varied supervision, to encourage the candidate’s formation of an analytic identity, and to permit the completion of at least one analysis prior to graduation. Candidates ordinarily begin the supervised psychoanalysis of a patient (known as a “control case”) during Clinical Year II.

Candidates in training at PINE choose supervisors from among the Training and Supervisory Analysts and arrange a schedule and fees on an individual basis. Generally a second supervised case may be undertaken by a candidate after a satisfactory six-month report of the first case has been written and approved, and other aspects of his/her educational program have been reviewed. After the first six-month report is approved, a brief follow-up report must be submitted once a year on each supervised case. A third supervised case is begun after at least three years of seminars and submission of satisfactory six-month reports on the first two control cases, and often a fourth case is begun before graduation. A minimum of 200 hours of supervision is required for graduation. The supervised cases should represent patients of both sexes. Control cases are seen at a frequency of 4-5 times per week. At least one control should have been carried to the advanced phase of the analysis or to the successful termination of treatment.

Each candidate is assigned a faculty advisor for the duration of his/her training. At least twice a year, the candidate meets with his/her advisor to review his/her progress to date including written feedback from seminar leaders and supervisors of their control cases. After starting a second control, a candidate is asked to particpate in a mini-progressions meeting in which his/her self-evaluation and the evaluations of their seminar leaders and supervisors are discussed to plan for future support as needed and additional training experiences that will optimize the rest of their training.

The administrative responsibilities for the training program are overseen by the Education Committee in cooperation with the faculty as a whole. The Education Committee attends to the day to day decision-making and responsibilities of the institute as well as overall planning. The Curriculum Committee, which includes candidates as well as faculty members, oversees the ongoing assessment and development of the seminars. The Progressions Committee, comprised of the faculty advisors to the candidates, follows all stages of the progress of candidate training and facilitates individualized learning. The Committee of Training Analysts collaborates with the Education Committee on candidate education and institute policy. After an applicant is accepted as a candidate, he or she should arrange for a training analysis and notify the Administrative Director of such arrangements. Most candidates will enter a training analysis with one of the PINE Institute training analysts. Candidates ordinarily may begin seminars immediately, but are required to have begun a training analysis prior to beginning the second year of seminars and within two years of the date of acceptance, unless an extension is granted by the Education Committee. Candidates must continuously maintain full professional licensure and malpractice liability insurance. A candidate in full clinical training in psychoanalysis must neither represent him- or herself as a psychoanalyst nor practice psychoanalysis until authorized to do so by an approved Institute of the American Psychoanalytic Association.

The practice of psychoanalysis is complex, and competence requires a clear understanding of ethical principles as outlined in the Principles and Standards of Ethics for Psychoanalysis of the American Psychoanalytic Association. All candidates, faculty, and members of the PINE Psychoanalytic Center commit to adherence to these standards. 

For additional information about training at the institutes of the American Psychoanalytic Association please refer to the APsaA Standards for Psychoanalytic Education and Training.


Although we will not be accepting candidates for psychoanalytic training until at least 2017, Alice Rapkin, PINE Administrative Director, can arrange a meeting with PINE faculty for those interested in the possibility of psychoanalytic training, including licensed mental health clinicians in the community, psychiatric residents, clinical psychology and social work interns, and graduates of psychiatry, psychology, social work, and mental health counseling programs.